Analysis on the construction fire and fire prevent

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With the rapid development of reform and opening up and market economy, people's material and cultural living standards are improving day by day, which has also brought unprecedented prosperity to the interior decoration industry. From hotels to restaurants, from shopping malls to ballrooms, from shops to residences, from high-rise buildings to the underground, almost all buildings decorate themselves with brilliance, and they are getting higher and higher 1 Pull off the experimental file, luxurious and imposing. However, in the process of creating brilliance, there are a large number of fire hazards in the interior decoration construction, especially the informal decoration engineering personnel are mostly farmers or laid-off personnel, who have no decoration experience and do not understand the fire prevention requirements, resulting in a large number of fires, and some even major malignant fire accidents of mass death and mass injury. Next, combined with the actual work, the author makes a superficial analysis on the causes and Countermeasures of fire in the construction of interior decoration projects

I. The direct fire in indoor decoration construction is mainly applicable to rubber, plastic plates, pipes and profiled materials. A brief analysis of the reasons

the fire prevention code for the design of interior decoration of buildings stipulates that the interior decoration design of buildings includes the decoration of ceilings, walls, floors and partitions, as well as fixed furniture, curtains, curtains, bedspreads, furniture bags, fixed decorations, etc; In industrial plants, it includes the decoration of ceilings, walls, floors and partitions. A large number of combustible and flammable materials are used in the decoration, and there are many open flames such as electric welding. The direct causes of the fire mainly include the following aspects:

(I) violation of safety operation regulations. First, the electric welding and cutting operation is improper. This kind of fire has the highest frequency, which is generally caused by welding slag falling on combustibles. For example, the fire in Tangshan Linxi department store in 1993 caused direct property losses of 401. RMB 20000, 81 dead and 54 injured. Another example is the fire in Hongguang shopping mall in a city in our province, which killed 2 people. In addition, because the electric welding machine is overloaded and the decorations are heated by welding, there are many fires; The second is the improper installation and use of power station lines. Some wires that should wear flame-retardant tubes should be replaced by ordinary insulating tubes, or they should not be worn at all. Some install junction boxes without covers, and some even save connecting junction boxes, causing short circuit and ignition. Some distribution boxes installed on combustibles or not installed firmly can also cause fires. For example, in 1995, Urumqi Fisheries Company caused short circuit due to insulation damage of distribution boards due to construction vibration, resulting in 52 deaths; Third, improper installation and use of lamps. Code for fire protection in design of interior decoration of buildings 3. 1。 11. It is stipulated that when the high-temperature parts of lighting fixtures are close to non-A decoration materials, fire protection measures such as heat insulation and heat dissipation should be taken, and the combustion performance grade of materials used for lighting should not be lower than grade B1. However, in real life, some workers use 200W lighting lamps to bake goods and hang them on the wall of combustible decorations, the track lamps are improperly installed, and the lamp switches ignite and detonate combustible gases, and other fire accidents occur from time to time

(II) improper handling of flammable and explosive gases. In some decoration construction sites, sawdust, shavings, fiberboard, polaroid, etc. are stacked disorderly, blocking the passage; The oxygen and acetylene cylinders of gas cutting and gas welding are placed at will and unattended; Waterproof, waxing and painting thinner will produce flammable and explosive gases such as pine perfume and benzene oil. Careless use of fire or workers smoking and throwing matchsticks will ignite combustibles and cause a fire. In particular, the cross operation of multiple construction teams, with electric welding on the top and painting on the bottom, has great fire hazards

(III) smoking causes fire. There are many smokers in charge of decoration construction, who often smoke and leave cigarette butts during operation. However, there are many inflammables and combustibles on the decoration site, which are very easy to cause fire. For example, in 1996, Guangdong Sihui Yinyuan Hotel lost 2.5 million yuan due to cigarette butts left by decoration workers

According to different uses

(IV) careless use of fire in life. The workers who live and eat on the construction site are tired, and their alertness is not high. In addition, the use of fire in cooking and the careless management of lights will cause fires. For example, the decoration site of Wuhan Department store lost 320000 Yuan due to the fire of fuel oil when workers were cooking

II. Analysis of indirect fire causes in indoor decoration engineering construction

(I) weak legal concept and awareness of fire protection. Some decoration units only pay attention to economic benefits, unilaterally emphasize the right of independent management of enterprises, ignore the provisions of laws and technical specifications, and put into construction without declaring the design scheme of decoration and reconstruction projects; Other operators hold the view of "emphasizing operation, neglecting safety" and "early decoration, early opening and early benefit", and take chances of the occurrence of the fire. They prefer to do luxury decoration at a cost rather than spend a little money on fire protection. What is more serious is that there are many administrative interventions in some places, such as substituting power for law, replacing fire regulations with personal opinions, and even supporting the subordinates and relevant units to carry out decoration in violation of regulations, which has buried serious fire hazards

(II) there are too many construction teams, the qualification level is low, and the quality of the team is poor. At present, some decoration companies and construction teams are numerous, and their management is not standardized, and some are not registered at all. Several people set up a grass-roots team. After getting the project through relationships, they find a few friends to help, and then leave with money after finishing the work, regardless of your hidden dangers. Even for officially registered construction teams, most of the personnel are farmers and laid-off workers, most of whom have not received induction training and do not understand fire protection knowledge

(III) unauthorized design modification and multi-level contracting. The decoration unit decorates without permission without reporting to the fire department for approval. Even if the design is approved, in order to reduce the cost, the use function of the building is changed without authorization, and the flame-retardant fabric is changed to combustible, cutting corners, such as using ordinary polyester chemical fiber instead of fire-retardant fabric, and wood keel instead of light steel keel; If you don't brush the fireproof coating, you should brush it three times, and so on, which greatly reduces the fire resistance and fire resistance of the decoration project. In addition, in order to catch up with the progress of the construction period, the construction period is usually divided and contracted to several construction teams, resulting in the disconnection and ambiguity of fire safety work at all levels, which are potential factors for fire accidents

(IV) management during construction is chaotic, and there are many "trilateral" projects. "Construction, decoration and business at the same time" leads to many fire hazards and complex personnel. Workers eat and live on the construction site every day, which is detrimental to fire prevention, personnel evacuation and fire fighting. For example, in 1995, when the interior decoration of Jiujiang "large and medium-sized" commercial building in Jiangxi Province was not completed, the so-called "trilateral" project was opened from the first to the fifth floors, forming the so-called "trilateral" project. In fact, the "trilateral" project is not allowed, but there are two principles, namely, the first is to absolutely ensure the fire safety of the project, and the second is that it is not allowed to reduce the requirements of fire-fighting facilities in the project, and the large and medium-sized commercial building just violates the fire-fighting regulations on these two principles, Undocumented workers improperly installed track lights, causing a fire, causing direct property losses of more than 1.3 million, and a tragedy of 10 deaths and 1 injury

(V) many fire-fighting facilities and concealed works are damaged. Code for fire protection in design of interior decoration of buildings 3. 3。 14. It is stipulated that the indoor decoration shall not block the fire-fighting facilities, evacuation signs and exits, and shall not hinder the normal use of fire-fighting facilities and evacuation walkways. While many decoration companies do not understand the fire protection technical performance of modern fire-fighting equipment, they cut off the fire alarm circuit without authorization, hide it in the ceiling or hang it under the ceiling, block the sprinkler head, bury the fire hydrant, and do not have enough evacuation exits. The resolution of the Third Plenary Session of the 108th Central Committee with the theme of "comprehensively deepening reform", accident lighting equipment and on-site fire-fighting equipment

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