Fire safety foundation of the hottest high-rise bu

2022-09-21
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Fire safety foundation of high-rise buildings

Fire Safety Foundation of high-rise buildings

on the basis of years of experience and lessons, the continuous updating and progress of fire prevention knowledge makes the fire safety of high-rise building design increasingly reasonable and effective. With the increasing population and limited land resources, buildings can only develop vertically. With the birth of more and more high-rise buildings, and the height is constantly refreshed, fire safety has been paid more and more attention. Proper fire prevention measures bring about the safety of residents and the building itself

in order to reduce the fire and the resulting losses, designers must make fire prevention plans in architectural design. Whether active or passive, the fire prevention of automotive composite materials developed by Engel and Volkswagen can have a certain fire prevention effect. A well-designed scheme and its implementation in design and construction can effectively ensure the fire safety of high-rise civil buildings. Through years of trial and error, UL has proposed the following concepts and standards that allow us to build safer high-rise buildings

building fire protection objectives

effective fire protection design begins with conscious analysis and decision-making in the early stage of the design process. In order to effectively incorporate building fire prevention into the design, we must first clarify the goal. The acceptable safety level, the focus of safety analysis and the objectives of the design process are mainly focused on the following aspects:

life safety

property protection

business continuity

environmental protection

fire safety design strategy

if the fire can be prevented, or even if the fire can be effectively controlled, the purpose of fire prevention can be achieved. The safety design evaluation of building fire protection is a systematic method of fire safety strategy. These strategies include:

1 Prevention of fire

the primary strategy for building fire safety is prevention, which is mainly to isolate potential heat sources from potential combustibles. Building fires are mainly caused by heat sources and combustible materials brought into the building, rather than the heat sources and combustible materials of the building itself. That is to say, from the standpoint of architects and construction units, it is limited to consider the potential factors that the design of the building itself may become a building fire in the future

for design purposes, fire prevention is mainly strengthened by strictly complying with the specifications and standards for the design and installation of electrical and lighting systems, heating systems and any other equipment installed in the building (such as cooking equipment, refrigeration and air conditioning, laundry and drying equipment). Ventilation systems also need to be carefully designed to discharge carbon monoxide and potential combustibles through safe passages

lightning protection and exposure fire prevention have an impact on the external design of buildings. A fire in a building may generate heat sources for external adjacent buildings through thermal radiation, convection and flickering flames, causing these buildings to catch fire

2. Control the combustion process

control the combustion process is mainly to slow down the fire and provide sufficient time for other fire safety measures. For this purpose, the system design should pay attention to the possible ways of rapid fire spread

the building fire safety system can be deployed around the fire growth point and its combustion products (i.e. flame, hot smoke and gas). The production and movement of these products will be affected by building fire prevention measures. The effect of building fire safety system determines the speed, quantity and path of these combustion products

the main factors affecting the combustion process control are

I. combustible load

ii Interior decoration of the room

iii. gas supply

iv. size, shape and structure of the room

v. fire load

3 Fire control through the structure

fire retardant barriers, such as walls, partitions and floors, separate the space of the building. These barriers can also delay or prevent the spread of fire from one place to another. In addition, barriers are an important part of any fire fighting operation, because they can determine the size of the fire

the effect of the barrier depends on its own fire-resistant structure and penetration rate. Use flame retardant paint, fire barrier, firewall, fire doors and windows. There are also a few other ways to control fire through building structures

4. Fire detection and alarm

there must be a fire detection system, so that automatic or manual fire fighting can be carried out. Start any other active fire prevention system, and the personnel in the building will have enough time to transfer to a safe place, usually outside the building

one reason to pay attention to any rapidly developing initial fire is that it will shorten the time that can be used to save lives and property after a fire is detected. No matter which detection system is selected, it is important to realistically evaluate the response time of each area of the building after detecting a fire and before fatal or other highly dangerous situations occur

the alarm device does not need to be connected to the location of the detection sensor, but it should be designed to inform the personnel in the building what they need to do according to their location and their response ability. This includes the use of a central alarm display panel and a monitor to notify the person in charge

5. Automatic fire fighting

in order to realize automatic fire fighting, it is necessary to detect fire and use sufficient fire extinguishing materials. For nearly a century and a half, automatic sprinkler has been the most important system for automatic control of building fire suppression. The advantage of automatic sprinkler is that it acts directly on the top of the fire and is not affected by smoke, toxic gas and visibility decline. In addition, the water consumption is less, because only the sprinkler triggered by the heat of the fire will spray water. The elements that determine the automatic fire extinguishing system include whether there is an automatic fire extinguishing system; If so, how reliable is it; If reliable, how about its design and fire extinguishing effect

6. Manual fire fighting

the manual fire fighting in architectural design mainly includes the distance between the fire department and the building, the use of initial extinguishing agent, fire fighting and ventilation, which can also be clamped) Storage capacity and use, extractable water and barrier effect

7. Manage exposure objectives

the impact of fire can be reduced by managing exposure objectives (i.e. people, property, operations, environment or heritage), depending on the design aspects considered. The exposed personnel or property can be transferred to a safe area or shelter, or protected by local protection. Life safety design can include one or more of the following:

I. evacuation of people in the building

I next, Jinan Huaheng Experimental Equipment Co., Ltd. will introduce the specific role of an electronic universal experimental machine to you. I. protect people in the building on site

III. provide an effective refuge area

IV. conduct evacuation training

the role of UL in the fire safety of high-rise buildings

UL has a history of more than a century, and has the world's first laboratory that can carry out testing equipment for various building structural materials. UL has formulated a large number of standards and regulations on building materials. 1. Reduce the speed and improve the output torque range, involving:

o building fire-retardant facilities: such as fire doors, baffles, smoke extractors, firewalls, fire-resistant paint, fire-retardant building materials, roofing materials, welding leakage, ladder brakes, etc.

o fire extinguishing equipment: such as fire extinguishers, fire-fighting system devices, pumps, engines, fire hoses and hose valves, sprinklers, deluge valves These specifications and standards have long provided reference and reference for all sectors of society in curbing and extinguishing the spread of fire and smoke, so as to protect and save lives

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